Rabindranath Tagore Biography: Early Life, Quotes, Nobel Prize, and More

Rabindranath Tagore Biography

In this post, we discuss Rabindranath Tagore Biography, his thoughts, Nobel Prize and the establishment of Vishwabharati University by him.

Who was Rabindranath Tagore?

Rabindranath Tagore Biography
Rabindranath Tagore
Nickname – Rabi
Born – 7 May 1861 ( In present-day Kolkata, West Bengal, India )
Death – 7 August 1941 ( At the age 80 )
Father –  Debendranath Tagore,
Mother – Sharda Devi
Award – Nobel Prize in Literature ( In 1913 )
Wife – Mrinalini Devi
Children – Rathindranath Tagore and 5 More
Notable Work – Gitanjali, Jana Gana Mana, Amar Sonar Bangla, and Other Work
Rabindranath Tagore Biography

Rabindranath Tagore was a Bengali poet, writer, philosopher, painter, and musician. Rabindranath Tagore is also known as Gurudev. Rabindranath Tagore was awarded the most prestigious award Nobel Prize in 1913 for his work, becoming the first person to receive the Nobel Prize in Asia. 

He was the only poet in the world whose two compositions were chosen by India and Bangladesh as his national anthem.

Rabindranath Tagore Biography

Rabindranath Tagore Biography
Rabindranath Tagore Biography

Early Life of Rabindranath Tagore

Rabindranath Tagore was born on 7 May 1861 in a wealthy family in present-day Kolkata, West Bengal. His father’s name was Debendranath Tagore, and his mother was Sharda Devi.

Rabindranath Tagore had 13 brothers and sisters, but Rabindranath Tagore was the fourth surviving child. Rabindranath Tagore had his early education at the prestigious St. Xavier.

Rabindranath Tagore’s, father Debendranath Tagore, was very much influenced by the Brahmo Samaj. That is why they took the spiritual path. Debendranath Tagore encouraged his family to learn English, And he hired some musicians at his home to teach music to children.

When Rabindranath Tagore was fourteen years old, his mother Sarada Devi died therefore he was upbringing by servants. Rabindranath Tagore was born into a talented family. His eldest brother Dwijendranath Tagore was a philosopher and poet. 

And his second brother, Satyendranath Tagore, was the first non-European to be appointed to the Indian Civil Service. And his third brother, Jyotindranath Tagore, was a musician, composer, and playwright. His sister, Swarnakumari, was a novelist. His entire family was filled with intellectuals.

Jyotindranath’s wife Kadambari Devi, was only 9 years old when she got married. Kadambari Devi and Rabindranath Tagore were almost equal in age, both of them used to play and eat together.

Kadambari Devi loved Rabindranath Tagore a lot. That is why after the marriage of Rabindranath Tagore, he committed suicide in 1884. Rabindranath Tagore wrote many poems in memory of Kadambari Devi.

In Young Age

Rabindranath Tagore ran far away from schooling, he mostly studied at home. In this, he was helped by another brother Harendranath Tagore, and he learned wrestling, art, geography, history, literature, mathematics, culture, and English at home.

Rabindranath Tagore’s, father Debendranath Tagore, wanted his son to grow up to become a lawyer. That is why in 1878, Rabindranath Tagore took admission in a public college in Brighton, East Sussex, England.

In 1880, he left his studies incomplete and returned to Bengal and published many poetry works. In 1882, he published two verse plays, the first-named, “Rudra Chakra” and the second which was a collection of poems “Sandhya Sangeet”.

Meanwhile, in 1883, Rabindranath Tagore married 10-year-old girl Mrinalini Devi. On 20 May 1884, Kadambari Devi, wife of Jyotirindranath, committed suicide after witnessing Rabindranath Tagore’s wedding.

His dream of opening a school

  • Rabindranath Tagore wanted to open a school, he wanted to revive the ancient Gurukul system. He named it “ABODE of the GOD”. 
  • Rabindranath Tagore Ji sold the copyright of the books to collect money for the school and his wife also sold her wedding ornaments to support him.

Between 1902 and 1907

His wife Mrinalini Devi died in 1902, then a few years later his father died in 1905, and his eldest son in 1907. He wrote many poems in memory of his wife, this time was the worst time of his life.

Between 1908 and 1920

In 1908, he was elected President of the Provincial Political Conference which took place in Pabna. After some time, “Jana Gana Mana” was sung for the first time in the annual session of the Indian National Congress.

Nobel prize to Rabindranath Tagore

In November 1913, Rabindranath Tagore was awarded the Nobel Prize for his work Geetanjali which was a collection of 103 poems. On 20 December 1915, the University of Calcutta honored Rabindranath Tagore with Doctor of Literature.

On 3 June 1915, Rabindranath Tagore received the title of Knighthood from Britain.

Patriotism and kindness

He renounced his knighthood expressing his opposition after the Jallianwala incident. Rabindranath Tagore was against the partition of Bengal, he also opposed the oppressive policies of the Britishers.

Rabindranath Tagore also worked with the farmers to support the farmers and also worked to improve the situation. He also opposed violence, believing that humanity is the biggest thing that can end wars.

Later Years

On 23 December 1921, he founded the Vishwa Bharati University and gave the copyright of his Bengali Books, his land, Nobel Prize Money to the Vishwabharati University.

He also sang and playwright in old age to raise funds for Visva Bharati University.

On 7 August 1940, the Chief Justice of India was sent to the representative of the University of Oxford at Shantiniketan, and Rabindranath Tagore was awarded the Oxford Doctorate.

7 August 1941 Rabindranath Tagore died at the age of 80.

Unknown or Interesting Facts About Rabindranath Tagore.

  • 1-Rabindranath Tagore was the first non-European to be awarded the most prestigious award Nobel Prize in September 1913.
  • 2- Rabindranath Tagore also met Albert Einstein, the greatest scientist of the 20th century, in 1930.
  • 3- Rabindranath Tagore is the only writer in the world whose two compositions have been accepted by India and Bangladesh as their national anthem.
  • 4 – He gave up his Knighthood title after the Jallianwala Massacre.
  • 5- Rabindranath Tagore was very deep relations with Mahatma Gandhi.

Notable Work

1- Gitanjali – Gitanjali is a collection of poems, which contains a total of 103 poems, for this work Rabindranath Tagore received the Nobel Prize in 1913.


2- Jana Gana Mana – Jana Gana Mana is the national anthem of India written by Rabindranath Tagore and was chosen as India’s national anthem on 24 January 1950.

3- Amar Sonar Bangla – Amar Sonar Bangla was written at the time of the partition of Bengal in 1905. Which was later chosen by Bangladesh as its national anthem. Amar sonar Bangla means “My Golden Bengal”.


4- Other Important Works

Rabindranath Tagore Quotes
Rabindranath Tagore Quotes
Rabindranath Tagore Quotes
Rabindranath Tagore Quotes
Rabindranath Tagore Quotes

Frequently Asked Questions

Who is the Farther and Mother of Rabindranath Tagore?

Father – Debendranath Tagore and Mother – Sharda Devi

Where was Rabindranath Tagore Born?

Kolkata, West Bengal, India

Which University was Founded by Rabindranath Tagore?

Vishwabharati University

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