In this article you will get, the Biography of Tipu Sultan, Tipu Sultan story, and Anglo Mysore Wars.
Who was Tipu Sultan?
Tipu Sultan was the ruler of Mysore, who first used rockets in the Anglo-Mysore wars in the world and blew the British senses. They are also called tigers. Today we will know the story of Tipu Sultan.
Biography of Tipu Sultan
|Born – 20 November 1750 ( In Devanahalli, Present-day Bangalore )|
|Died – 4 May 1799 ( In the age of 48 )|
|Tipu Sultan Wife – Khadija Zaman and More|
|Father – Hyder Ali|
|Mother – Fatima Fakhr-un-Nisa|
Biography of Tipu Sultan
Before knowing about Tipu Sultan, we have to know why Mysore was necessary for the British we must first understand politics. The king of Mysore was Hyder Ali, who was also the father of Tipu Sultan. Mysore had a large coastal area, which we know as the Malabar Coast.
There was a business of pepper and black paper from there. These coastal areas were also important for the British because it was easy to trade from Europe.
Secondly, the British were proud as the British won the Battle of Plassey in 1757 and Buxar in 1764. This was the time when the British were expanding into India.
That is why there was to be a war between the British and Mysore. Britishers could not win South India without winning the Mysore. This is why the Anglo-Mysore War was fought 4 times. This was the situation at that time. Now we will talk about Tipu Sultan.
The early life of Tipu Sultan
Tipu Sultan was born on 20 November 1750 in Devanahalli. It was about 33 km north of the present-day Bangalore Rural District. Tipu Sultan was the eldest son of Hyder Ali.
Hyder Ali was a military leader, but due to his tremendous work, he continued to get big. Now he had command of the entire army, so Hyder Ali became the Sultan of Mysore in 1761. Hyder Ali emerged as the most powerful king of southern India.
Tipu Sultan’s father Hyder Ali was not educated, So he wanted his son to get a good education.
Hyder Ali employed teachers capable of teaching in Urdu, horse riding, shooting, fencing, Arabic, Persian, and other subjects for Tipu. Tipu Sultan learned military tactics from the French authorities. He fought the first war of his life against the British at the age of just 15.
From the age of 17, Tipu was given independent charge of important diplomatic and military missions. He was his father’s right hand.
Why Tipu Sultan is called Tiger?
Once Tipu Sultan and his French friends went to the forest to hunt. He saw a tiger, seeing that he fired at that tiger, but the tiger was not shot. That tiger attacked him.
Tipu also had a dagger that fell, But somehow he killed the tiger by lifting the dagger. That is why there is a tiger on each of their symbols. He was a brave soldier, had no answer in the art of war.
Anglo – Mysore Wars
First Anglo – Mysore War (1767 – 69)
The first war started between the British and Mysore in 1767, in which the British suffered very heavy losses, and the British did not get anything from this war, which ended in 1769. Tipu Sultan also fought in this war at the age of fifteen.
Second Anglo – Mysore War (1780 – 1784)
In 1779, the British seized Port Male of France, which was then under the protection of Mysore. This fueled Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan. That is why in 1780, Hyder Ali declared war against the British, To get Male back from the British, and the British could be driven out of Madras as well.
Battle of Polilur
Tipu Sultan defeated Colonel Ballie badly, causing much loss of life and property. When a British military commander, Hector Munro, came to know about this defeat, he left Kanchipuram and immediately went to see how much damage was done.
By the time of February 1783, Tipu Sultan also defeated Colonel Braithwaite.
Tipu Sultan was declared the ruler of Mysore on 22 December 1782, soon after Tipu Sultan’s father Hyder Ali died on 18 February 1782. The British did not get anything from this war. Then the 1787 Treaty of Mangalore is signed.
At that time, the power of the Maratha Empire was in the hands of Peshwa Madhavrao, the Maratha defeated Tipu Sultan’s father twice in the war between 1764 and 1767. That is why Hyder Ali accepted the king of Maratha as supreme. After this, Peshwa Madhavrao gave the title of Nawab to Hyder Ali.
For this reason, Mysore had to pay annual compensation to Maratha, but Tipu Sultan was not happy with this. That is why there was a war between Maratha and Mysore again in 1785, in which Marathas won in many places and Mysore in many places.
Then to end this war Treaty of Gajendragad was signed in which Mysore had to suffer. In this treaty, Mysore said that Hyder Ali used to give annual compensation to Maratha every year, now Tipu Sultan will also give annual compensation to Maratha for four years.
Third Anglo – Mysore War (1790 – 1792)
On 28 December 1789, Tipu Sultan attacked Travancore but could not defeat him as the army of Travancore showed tremendous might. But he could not stop Tipu Sultan for much longer, so the ruler of Travancore immediately sought help from the East India Company.
In response, Lord Convollis sent his army and joined hands with the Nizam and the Marathas. Now Tipu Sultan had to fight a battle with 3 armies.
This was the beginning of a bad time for Tipu Sultan, Tipu Sultan was defeated very badly in this war. The British benefited the most in this because they removed their biggest obstacle with the help of Marathas and Nizams.
Treaty of Seringapatnam
After this, the Treaty of Seringapatnam was signed, in which the terrible disarray of Mysore took place, and together almost half of Mysore was taken by the three armies.
The British took the two sons of Tipu Sultan captive, saying that till Mysore would not pay the three crores and thirty million rupees, his two sons would remain as prisoners to the British.
Fourth Anglo – Mysore War (1799) – Death of Tipu Sultan
Once again, the three armies attacked Tipu Sultan in 1799, and then Tipu Sultan asks for help from France, but France could not help him because his army had become very weak after fighting much war.
In this war British send about 26000 troops, the Nizam 16000, and the rest of the army belongs to the Marathas. In total, their army is more than 50000 thousand. But Tipu Sultan has 30000 thousand soldiers.
That is why they lose and they fight and die. Tipu Sultan died on 4 May 1799.
France Army’s suggestion – Tipu Sultan quotes
Tipu Sultan was suggested by the French Army to flee through an intelligence route. But Tipu Sultan said,
“It is better to live a thousand days like a sheep, that I may live like a tiger one day.”Tipu Sultan
Dr APJ Abdul Kalam Speech on Tipu Sultan
Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam, former President of India, in a speech in Tipu Sultan Sahid Memorial Bangalore (30 November 1991), called Tipu Sultan an inventor of rockets.
The British carried two rockets they were kept in the Royal Society Museum in London. Tipu Sultan had a special contingent of about 5000 thousand for the use of rockets.
The sword of Tipu Sultan
Tipu Sultan lost his sword in the war with Travancore. After his death, the British took away everything from his ring to his sword.
Tipu Sultan’s sword weighed 7 kg. His sword was kept in the museum and later sold very expensive.
Mysore was the Economic Superpower under the rule of Tipu Sultan. The economic policies of Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan were very good. People had employment. The property was also increasing.
The agricultural and textile manufacturing sector of Mysore was very good at that time. The income of the people has folded five times, and by that time, the average income of Mysore was the highest in the world.
Yes, Mysore also had a navy. He also had twenty warships, 20 frigates. There were also dockyards for warships at Jamalabad and Majidabad. His navy consisted of eleven commanders and 30 admirals, every two admirals under two warships.
This was the biography of Tipu Sultan, who accepted death, but did not leave the war. This was the story of Tipu Sultan.
Frequently Asked Questions
Who killed Tipu Sultan?
Tipu Sultan died in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War.
Who defeated Tipu Sultan?
Tipu Sultan was defeated by the British, Marathas and Nizams.
When was Tipu Sultan, born?
Tipu Sultan was born on 10 December 1782.
Who is the Farther of Tipu Sultan?